By Julio Rodríguez Matute
NATURAL TRAGEDIES MARK THE END OF A DECADE.-
And we arrived in 1970, a year of transition that began a new decade full of changes in fashion and technology and in which the world population already reached more than 3.6 billion people .. A year also marked by natural tragedies with a high balance of fatalities. Earthquakes in Tumbes and Ancash (Peru) – where an avalanche erased from the map the ancient city of Yungay – in Tonghai, China and in Kutahya, Turkey leaves a total of more than one hundred thousand dead and missing. Cyclone Bhola in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) causes more than 500,000 victims, considered the worst hurricane of the 20th century. The US invades Cambodia during the Vietnam War, while one hundred thousand people march demonstrating against the war in Washington DC. Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia, Guyana becomes Cooperative Republic, while Tonga and Fiji gain independence from the United Kingdom. The civil war in Nigeria ends with the dissolution of the rebellious Republic of Biafra and in Poland there are bloody riots over the food’s price rise. In Chile, Salvador Allende is elected president. In Canada, the state of emergency is declared because of separatists in the province of Quebec, while air kidnappings in the world were booming. The Expo 70 world fair opens in Osaka, Japan. In Mexico the Soccer World Cup is won by Brazil for the third time after defeating Italy 4 to 1. The American boxer Mohammed Ali (former Cassius Clay) announces his definitive withdrawal from boxing. Puerto Rican Marisol Malaret wins the first Miss Universe crown for her island in the pageant held in Miami Beach while Ireland, with the theme “All Kinds of Everything” played by Dana, wins the Eurovision Festival in Amsterdam. Diana Ross quits from The Supremes and Paul Mc Cartney from The Beatles; they release their latest album “Let it be”. The popularity of the group “The Jackson’s 5” begins with a Michael Jackson of barely 12 years of age. The program “Chespirito”, by Roberto Gómez Bolaños, is broadcast for the first time in Mexico. This year the Mexican singer Luis Miguel, the American Mariah Carey and Debbie Gibson, the models Naomi Campbell and Claudia Schiffer and the Peruvian actor Christian Meier, son of the former Miss Universe Gladys Zender, were born. The French politician Charles De Gaulle, rock singer Janis Joplin (for drug overdose), and American musician Jimi Hendrix (for barbiturate poisoning) died in 1970; both Joplin and Hendrix were 27 years old. On the other hand, the 1970 Miss World contest had great global repercussions due to the events that occurred on the night of Friday, November 20.
A BILLIONAIRE PURCHASED MECCA.-
On Thursday, August 13, it was announced that billionaire Maxwell Joseph had bought 80% of the shares of Mecca Promotions LTD for an amount of £ 36 million, intending to unite the company of dance halls and owner of the Miss World with its chain of Grand Metropolitan hotels. Alan B. Fairley of Mecca supported the offer and signed it. The most significant change in the Miss World contest after the purchase of its shares was that the headquarters hotel would now be the newly opened Britannia hotel (now known as the Millennium Hotel London Mayfair), in Grosvenor Square, built between 1967 and 1969 and owned by Joseph and his hotel chain.
JULIA MORLEY AS THE ORGANIZER.-
The woman behind Miss World could easily be mistaken for one of her contestants. Julia Morley remained in charge of the contest for the second consecutive year and managed to achieve or maintain a total of 68 “sponsors” this year in the same number of countries and territories. However, it lost four African countries (Egypt, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ghana) that decided not to continue supporting the world beauty contest. Of the 68 countries with directors, two of them (Chile and Kenya) did not hold a national contest that year. For the umpteenth time the Soviet Union was invited again to participate, but they ignored the invitation sent by Morley. By the way, just in 1970, Julia decided to definitely ban the participation of married women in Miss World.
During each year, the number of participating countries was constantly increasing. “”They’re not pressured into it,” said Mrs. Morley. “They come only if they want to.” So surely, as she points out, this must stand as proof of the contest’s dignity and reputation. Organizing something that involves so many countries was a complicated matter, as the United Nations could probably verify. Mrs. Morley, mother of five children, wife of Eric Morley, the man who created the Miss World contest 20 years earlier, did everything with the help of a small team. But she didn’t minimize the pitfalls and the responsibility. “This is not just another beauty contest,” she said, “Neither is it a game. Each girl is a possible winner, a representative of her country. For their part, the countries involved ensure that their choice would be a good ambassadress if she won. For our part, it’s up to us to see that nothing, but nothing, during the fortnight the girls are in London, in any way harms them or the image of the countries they represent.” Patter It sounds much like the patter any good PRO puts forward. In Julia Morley’s case she believes it, and so believing convinces her audience”. To ensure this protection for both the girl and her country-66 them this year- Mecca throws the switch and a smoothly oiled, well-rehearsed system goes into action. Discreet advertisements in “The Times” attract applicants for the jobs of chaperones, each whom is responsible for five contestants. “This year”, Julia Morley says, ” there were 730 applicants—including seven from men. Okay.” she laughs, maybe they were the wolves you were wondering about. Maybe not. Anyway, we had a chuckle, then wrote them a very nice, serious letter saying that their qualifications did not equip them to be chaperones for our girls.” Of the short list of 70 girls, all of whom have to speak at least two languages, 13 were finally chosen as chaperones, “not a good name,” Julia Morley says, “because they’re all young and attractive”. From November 8, when the contestants begin Jetting into London, until the contest in the Albert Hall on November 20, these 13 discreet, understanding, efficient young Women in their purple uniforms will be in the background every glamour photo you will see. For the first two days the girls are in London it is the chaperones’ job to see they will have everything they need in clothes, make-up, a spare pal. From that moment, Julia Morley takes care of the girls and they could not walk on their own. For almost fifteen days before the final, the girls live, eat and smile together in a round of visits, lunches and receptions designed to keep them busy and allow them maximum exposure. This year the girls would also have more male company; In addition to lunch in the House of Commons, cocktails in the House of Lords and a tour of Lloyd’s Bank in London, the girls would have lunch at the police station and have a visit to the domestic cavalry.
Julia joined Mecca, her husband’s massive leisure and entertainment organization, just before the last contest, when much of the work was already done. Despite this, there were problems, since most of the promotions department resigned when they saw the chief’s wife assume the position of promotions director. “I think,” she said at the time, “they could have waited to see what I was like.” Faced with empty desks and a contest to run, the boss’s wife created a new team, saw the 1970 crown go to Austria’s Eva Reuben-Staler. “I didn’t really expect the directors to keep me on after the last contest,” she confessed. “I thought I was just a stop-gap. So I hid my surprise when my husband casually one night asked what ideas I had for the next contest.” Recently the board gave her the impressive title of Executive Director for Mecca Promotions, so she figured she had found favour with the hierarchy. “Now the only way I could get out would be to have another baby,” she laughed, looking not unhappy at being trapped. Julia Morley, after 10 years of marriage and raising a family (“on the production line” is how she puts it), has taken surprisingly well to executive status. Her enthusiasm is unlimited, her ability to lead her young team patently obvious in the way she deals with three telephones ringing constantly on her huge, littered desk. She transfers a Bermuda call to an assistant and goes on with describing the Turkish contest, from which she had just returned. At a time when a lot of people are jaded by beauty contests, Mrs Morley agreed that the Miss World quest should attempt to be a lot more than just a parade of pretty faces and trim figures.
The contest cost Mecca about £ 250,000 although this was defrayed by various sponsorships which were assessed each year. The £ 10,000 that stems from the box office and programs of the final, plus a few random raffles, went to the Variety Club Children’s Fund. Julia Morley, a self-confessed do-gooder at a handicapped school for a couple of years before she swapped children for international beauties, was clearly swayed by the charity angle. “The money has always gone, without deductions of any sort, to the Variety Club, because it has international tie-ups and the money goes all over the world.” The expense of staging the quest, she says candidly, is small when the publicity to Mecca is considered. “We couldn’t buy it if we tried,” she says, “and we’re not ashamed to admit it.”
Mrs. Morley has no illusions about spending the rest of her life organizing Miss World contests. “I expect I’ll be around for a while”, she said. “What I really want is to create a promotions department that I could be proud of.” She doesn’t, she says, want to be remembered as the boss’s wife. Appalled “I’d be appalled to think I got and held the job because I was Eric Morley’s wife.” Her admission that she’d like to stage the contest in Australia was not just a sop to a visiting Australian journal ist. “Why not,” she said excitedly. “It’s an international quest, in aid of an international charity. I’d like to see it held in Britain every second year, and somewhere else in the alternate years. We’ve already enough countries taking part to ensure venues for the next 138 years. Australia, in any case, has shown that another country’s interest in the final was strong by wanting to televise the contest. Sydney’s Channel 7 has been successful in the negotiations and will screen the big night on November 21. There are many who feel that Julia Morley has been particularly successful in making the jump from full-time housewife to full-time executive. The girl who gave up a promising modelling career some years ago in exchange for a wedding ring smiles it off with beaming assurance, “If a woman can get someone else to organise her home for her, big business is a piece of cake.
MISS WORLD 1969 IN HER FINAL DAYS OF REIGN.-
On the other hand, Eva Rueber-Staier, Miss World 1969, had canceled her trip to Tanzania due to the boycott of that country’s government towards beauty pageants, however she visited Kenya and Uganda on her African tour at the begining of the month of May. In Kenya, she tried to encourage the registration of young people in the national competition that had not been held since 1968 but the local organizers failed to obtain support from local sponsors and were unable to celebrate the beauty event for the second consecutive year. On September 16 she arrived in Australia for her tour of that country where she was a judge in the “Quest of Quests” contest on the 20th. She returned to London on her 21st birthday, on October 31. She celebrated her anniversary quietly with her boyfriend, Dr. Peter Stark in her department in the British capital as she had arrived from Australia with a throat infection.
SOME NATIONAL COMPETITIONS.-
* Miss France: 33 young people competed for the title of “Miss France 1970” on December 31, 1969 at the Mulhouse Sports Palace, being elected Micheline Beaurain, 20, Miss Paris, as the new sovereign of the French beauty. The finalists were Brigitte Vuillemin (Miss Jura-Franche-Comté) and Norma Klein (Miss Lorraine). It was rumored that after the death of Charles De Gaulle, on November 9, 1970, Micheline would not travel to London to Miss World as a sign of mourning, but finally she attended.
* Miss Portugal: The Miss Portugal contest was in decline until it changed hands. In 1970, the magazine “Radio y Televisión”, with the sponsorship of the Popular Newspaper and the Portuguese Radio Television, bought the rights to the event and held the contest in a big way on Saturday April 11 at the Trindade Theater in Lisbon with 19 participants. The winner was Ana Maria Lucas, 20, from Lisbon, who would represent her country in the Miss Universe and in the Miss Europe contests. The finalists were Isabel Doll Eca de Queiros, for Miss World; and Isabel Maria Afonso for Miss Cinema Europe. However, the organization subsequently decided that Ana Maria also went to Miss World in London and her first runner-up did not go to any international competition.
* Dominican beauty contest: On Saturday, April 25, the Dominican beauty contest was held at the Hotel El Embajador, where Miss Azúcar (Sobeida Fernández to Miss Universe), Miss Café (Fatima Schéker to Miss World) and Miss Merengue (Celia María García) were elected . The event was attended by Miss World 1969, the Austrian Eva Rueber-Staier.
* Miss 1970 (Czechoslovakia): In the month of June the Czechoslovak beauty contest was held in Karlovy Vary. The winner was Miroslava Jancíková, a medical student from Brno, who would go to Miss Universe 1971 and as the first runner-up was elected Xenie Hallová, who would go to Miss World. But international participation plans were canceled after the winner of the previous year, Kristina Hanzalová, requested political asylum in Germany after her participation in the 1970 Miss Universe contest in Miami Beach in July. The Czechoslovak government, under the communist yoke of the Soviet Union, decided to ban new beauty contests in that country, events that were resumed again in 1989.
* Miss Venezuela: On Wednesday, July 1st, a new edition of the Miss Venezuela contest was held, which was broadcast live on RCTV from the National Theater and where the beautiful Bella La Rosa was chosen among 16 participants after replacing her twin sister Linda at the competition. The rumor had spread that Linda (Miss Aragua) had withdrawn from the contest due to an accident where she had fallen from a horse, but the real story was that the father denied her permission to participate; but the rebellious Bella, to take the opposite of her father, secretly enrolled, entered as Miss Carabobo and won the contest, obtaining the right to represent her country in Miss Universe. As the Venezuelan representative to Miss World was named the great favorite, Tomasita De Las Casas, cousin of Miss Venezuela 1965, María De Las Casas.
* Miss Ecuador: This year, two Miss Ecuador contests were held. The first for Miss Universe in the month of May and the second, held on July 16 in Guayaquil with 11 participants. The winner of the second Miss Ecuador was Sofía Monteverde, who had the honors of representing her country in Miss World. The finalists were María Amanda Trujillo Arizaga, Patricia Guerrero Heredia, María Isabel Castillo Villafuerte and Berthirene León.
* Miss United Kingdom: The “Miss United Kingdom 1970” contest was held on Friday, August 14, in Blackpool with 40 contestants. The winner was Miss England, Yvonne Ormes of Nantwich, Cheshire, who had already won the 1968 Miss Great Britain titles at Morecambe and Miss England on Friday, April 10 at the Lyceum where she had been crowned by Eva Rueber-Staier. Miss United Kingdom finalists were Miss Manchester, Jean Galston and Miss Scotland, Lee Hamilton Marshall. As a curious note, Yvonne Ormes, who failed to place in Miss Universe in Miami Beach, was the first to wear the crown used today by the winner of Miss World. This crown was originally designed and made by jeweler David Morris for the Miss United Kingdom contest and premiered in 1970.
* Miss Italy: Salsomaggiore once again hosted the “Miss Italy 1970” contest, an event that had 54 contestants. The winner was Alda Balestra of Trieste, who did not go to any international competition because she was only 16 years old. Therefore, one of the finalists, Miss Elegance, Marika De Poi, was selected to represent the country in Miss World.
* Quest of Quests: On Sunday, September 20, the “Quest of Quests 1970” contest was held at the Wentworth hotel in Sydney with 20 candidates. The winner as “Australia´s Dream Girl” was Peta Maitland, 20, from Nedlands, Western Australia, who also received the title of “Princess of Australia” and the right to represent her country in the “Queen of the Pacific 1971”. Peta received the title from Miss World 1969, Eva Rueber-Staier. As the representative to Miss World was chosen Valli Kemp, who was one of the finalists of the “Quest of Quests”.
* Miss World-USA: Sandra Wolsfeld, Miss Illinois, who previously had competed in Miss USA 1968, won the ninth edition of “Miss World-USA 1970” held on Saturday, October 3 at Kings Castle in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, at an event that was hosted by Bob Hope and was attended by 45 contestants. The finalists were Miss Michigan, Sally Ann Stretton, Miss Georgia, Katherine Long Johnson, Miss Virginia, Patricia A. Moldovan and Miss California, Seelchen Sund.
* Miss Bella Gente: The choosing of the Argentine representative to the Miss World pageant was held at the end of October during the program “El Mundo del Espectáculo” in the studies of channel 13 and the winner of the contest would be crowned as “Miss Bella Gente” among 15 young ladies. The winner was Patricia María Charre, 22 years old and 5 feet 7 inches tall, who represented her country in London. The princesses were María Isabel Suárez and Raquel Klenek.
* Miss Mundo de Puerto Rico: A modeling agency took the rights to choose a Puerto Rican representative for the Miss World 1970 contest, after 11 years of absence. In a small event held at the end of October, Alma Pérez was chosen as the first “Miss World of Puerto Rico” in history.
* Miss Lebanon: On Saturday, November 7, at the Phenicia Theater in Beirut, the contest of “Miss Lebanon 1971” was held, winning Georgina Rizk, a Beirut model of 17 years and 5 feet 8 inches tall. The previous year, in the Miss Lebanon contest held on November 22, 1969, Miss Leila Ruad had been proclaimed as the Lebanese representative in Miss World 1970, however, this did not happen and the organizers sent at last minute the brand new Queen to London , who despite not having succeeded in the Morley contest, was proclaimed Miss Universe 1971 the following year in Miami Beach.
SOUTH AFRICA REPRESENTED BY TWO QUEENS, ONE WHITE AND ONE BLACK.-
On October 8 it was announced that this year, South Africa would be represented by two contestants, one white and one colored. The idea of the “two beauties” came from Eric Morley, the joint CEO of Mecca. He commented: “Opponents of apartheid asked me if there would be an objection to a colored queen from South Africa, and I said ‘No’. When I asked the same question to the sponsors of the white participant, the Johannesburg Sunday Times, they also agreed. The official organization of the “Miss South Africa” contest only accepted the participation of white women, which in recent years had brought protests by anti-apartheid groups, so Morley decided to grant the rights to another organization, who chose Pearl Gladys Jansen as the colored representative of the South Africans. To distinguish them, Morley decided that she would be identified as “Miss Africa South” while the traditional white girl would wear the sash of “Miss South Africa.” But the liberal groups were not satisfied with this and the anti-apartheid leader, Peter Hain suggested that they be called “Miss White South Africa” and “Miss Black South Africa” which Morley did not allow. Miss Africa South, which was three inches shorter than Miss South Africa, was sponsored by the Bodybuilding Federation of South Africa. Both girls were friends, Morley added.
An editorial in the Kansas newspaper “The Hayls Daily News” published the following: “We wish to register a bitter protest with South Africa. It sent two beauty entrants to the Miss World contest in London. One was white Miss South Africa; the other was black Miss Africa South. That isn’t fair to the contestants. No country should send two contestants, red, yellow, white, black or brown. The Miss World officials can’t help it if South Africa has an official apartheid policy. What if every country that had a racial problem sent delegates from every race? Look how many contestants the U.S. would have. Every color would be represented. Perhaps we could have blonde, brunette, red-haired and grey-haired representatives, too. (Even salt-and-pepper?). In contests as important and world-shaking as the Miss World affair, it’s vital to abide by the rules. South Africa should be forced to make up its mind. Black or white. One way or the other.To heck with apartheid. It just isn’t cricket. It’s jolly unfair.”
CHANGING THE CROWN.-
Mecca not only changed the crown of Miss United Kingdom this year, they also decided to change the crown of Miss World. David Morris Jewels Ltd won the rights and presented on October 21 at a renowned capital hotel, the new gold crown valued at £ 500 that the brand new Miss World would wear in her crowning on November 20. Who tried on the new crown was precisely the director of the jewelry, Miss Jenny Down, 25, in the absence of the reigning Miss World, who at that time was still in Australia.
THE START OF THE 1970 CONTEST.-
Although the 1970 contest would be held from November 8 to 21, a two-week event, the first candidate to arrive in London was Miss South Africa, the blonde Jillian Elizabeth Jessup on Wednesday, November 4. After her arrival, she was interviewed for TV at the Mecca offices of Shaftesbury Avenue by ITN journalist Keith Hatfield, who asked several questions of a political nature and that obviously were not very pleasant for the beauty queen. Suddenly, Julia Morley interrupted the live interview shouting at the journalist that the girl could not answer those kinds of questions. After finishing the interview, Julia stressed that she wanted to keep the politics out of the contest.
By November 6, the list of participants had been reduced from 66 to 63, when, in addition to the withdrawal of Miss Czechoslovakia (explained in a separate paragraph), representatives of COSTA RICA (Julia Haydee Brenes Fonseca) and from PARAGUAY (Lilian Margarita Fleitas Heisecke) were also excused for unknown reasons. The next candidate to arrive was Miss Hong Kong, on Saturday 7. For Sunday the 8th, the first official arrival day, a group of participants arrived, including Miss Canada, Miss Mauritius and Miss India. The next day, Monday 9, Miss Ecuador, Miss Portugal and Miss South Africa arrived. When reporters asked the girls about segregation and whether they thought it right that both of them should enter from the same country, both flared up. “Please don’t go all political – it’s jolly unfair of you,” protested blonde Jillian Jessup, 20, a student. Brunette Pearl Jansen, 20, a Cape Town shoe factory machinist, said: “Can’t you understand? We are beauty queens, not politicians. We don’t know anything about politics. Jillian and I are friends and will still be friends when we get back home.” They agreed: “We feel it gives our country two chances to win.”
On Tuesday the 10th, the contestants who had arrived strolled through Grosvenor Square, where the Britannia hotel, hosting the girls this year, was located, while at the Heathrow airport the girls from all over the planet continued arriving. That night Miss USA traveled to London from Chicago and Miss France, a deportment and protocol teacher at a 21-year-old Paris model agency, must have arrived, but she did not. There was a rumor that she would not participate because of the fact that former French President Charles De Gaulle had died the previous day and that she would mourn, but Parisian beauty arrived the next day. On Wednesday 11, the official activities of the contest began with a visit to the Sportsman Club, the old brewery on Chiswell Street, the Whitbread Dray stables and a tour of Lloyd’s Bank. The welcome dinner was also held courtesy of Air France. Meanwhile, illness struck several contestants. Miss South Africa and Miss South Africa were among the girls confined in their rooms in London. Miss South Africa had a recurrence of an eye infection, Miss South Africa was suffering fatigue after a 27-hour trip to London, the representative of Australia had tonsillitis and Miss Portugal had a bad cough. The beginning of the winter’s chill hit London and the young women were warned to warm up when they go out. Miss Israel laughed at the warnings and insisted on going swimming. “I swim every day, I’m not going to stop swimming here just because it’s a little cold,” said the 5 feet 9 inches tall blonde, the tallest of the contestants.
Curvy Sandra Anne Wolsfeld, Miss USA, pointed to her bandaged knee upon arriving in London, England, for the Miss World contest on Wednesday 11 aboard a jumbo 747. She said she had hit her knee with her oven’s door at home three days before the trip while trying to climb over her stove to reach her kitchen cabinets and she had 10 stitches. Sandra described the plane trip as “a really hard trip to London” because during the entire flight there was a lot of turbulence. On Thursday 12, a group of fourteen participants were selected to take some bold photos at the opening of a sauna. They were the representatives of Africa South, South Africa, Iceland, Australia, United Kingdom, Canada, Colombia, Austria, Mexico, Yugoslavia, Holland, Nigeria, Norway and Switzerland. Meanwhile, another group of 22 contestants enjoyed a lunch with the cops at the Wood Street station and another 20 girls visited the Roosevelt Memorial in Grosvenor Square.
THE STYLIST QUITS.-
That same day, the official stylist of the contest, Alan Browne of the beauty salon Alan’s of Piccadilly, resigned to continue sponsoring the contest. He said he was fed up with the girls’ tantrums and political arguments. He said that for the past four years he had been creating hairstyles for the aspiring Miss World but that now the politics and temperament of some girls had ruined everything. “Some act as ‘Prima Donnas,’” he added.
London betting house Jet Coral named Miss Canada, Norma Joyce Hickey, 19, on Thursday 12, as a 10-1 favorite to win the Miss World title that year. A Coral spokesman said the substantial bets placed on Miss Canada set their odds. The bookmaker named four contestants as second joint favorites with 12-1. They were Miss United Kingdom, Miss Austria, Miss Australia and Miss Sweden.
DID NOT COMPETE:
VARIETY CLUB AND PRESS PRESENTATION.-
On Friday, November 13 in the morning, the contestants who had so far arrived, went to a beauty salon to be ready for the luncheon offered annually by the Variety Club of Great Britain at the Savoy Hotel. At noon, the contestants attended dressed in their national costumes and brought their national gifts for the benefit of children’s charities that the aforementioned Club managed. At lunch, all the candidates received a velvet case with a silver chain and a medallion as a souvenir of having participated in the contest. At night they attended the Empire Ballroom in Leicester Square where the presentation to the press would take place and where they would pose for the first time in swimsuits for graphic reporters. For the first time almost all of the contestants attended because this activity was not carried out at the beginning of the concentration as usual. They were:
Miss AFRICA SOUTH (Pearl Gladys Jansen), Miss ARGENTINA (Patricia Maria Charré Salazar), Miss AUSTRALIA (Valli Kemp), Miss AUSTRIA (Rosemarie Resch), Miss BAHAMAS (June Justina Brown), Miss BELGIUM (Francine Martin), Miss BRAZIL (Sonia Yara Guerra), Miss CANADA (Norma Joyce Hickey), Miss CEYLON (Yolande Shahzadi Ahlip), Miss COLOMBIA (Carmelina Bayona Vera), Miss CYPRUS (Louiza Anastasiades), Miss DENMARK (Winnie Hollman), Miss DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (Fatima Magdalena Schéker Ocoa), Miss ECUADOR (Sofia Virginia Monteverde Nimbriotis), Miss FINLAND (Hannele Hamara), Miss FRANCE (Micheline Beaurain), Miss GAMBIA (Princess Margaret Davies), Miss GERMANY (Dagmar Eva Ruthenberg), Miss GIBRALTAR (Carmen Gómez), Miss GREECE (Giouli Vardi), Miss GRENADA (Jennifer Josephine Hosten), Miss GUYANA (Jennifer Diana Evan Wong), Miss HOLLAND (Patricia Hollman), Miss HONG KONG (Ann Lay), Miss ICELAND (Anna Scheving Hansdóttir), Miss INDIA (Heather Corinne Faville), Miss IRELAND (Molly Elizabeth McKinley), Miss ISRAEL (Irith Lavi), Miss ITALY (Marika De Poi), Miss JAMAICA (Elizabeth Ann Lindo), Miss JAPAN (Hisayo Nakamura), Miss KOREA (Jung-hee Lee), Miss LEBANON (Georgina Rizk) , Miss LIBERIA (Mainusa Wiles), Miss LUXEMBOURG (Rita Massard), Miss MALTA (Marthese “Tessa” Galea), Miss MAURITIUS (Florence Muller), Miss MEXICO (Libya Zulema López Montemayor), Miss NEW ZEALAND (Glenys Elizabeth Treweek), Miss NICARAGUA (Evangelina Lacayo), Miss NIGERIA (Stella Owivri), Miss NORWAY (Aud Fosse), Miss PHILIPPINES (Minerva Manalo Cagatao), Miss PORTUGAL (Ana Maria Diozo Lucas), Miss PUERTO RICO (Alma Doris Pérez Vélez), Miss SEYCHELLES (Nicole Barallon), Miss SOUTH AFRICA (Jillian Elizabeth Jessup), Miss SPAIN (Josefina Román Gutiérrez), Miss SWEDEN (Marjorie “Maj” Christal Johansson), Miss THAILAND (Tuanjai Amnakamart), Miss TUNISIA (Kaltoum Khouildi), Miss TURKEY (Afet Tugbay), Miss UNITED KINGDOM (Yvonne Anne Ormes), Miss UNITED STATES (Sandra Anne Wolsfeld), Miss VENEZUELA (Tomasa “Tomasita” Nina Josefina De Las Casas Mata) and Miss YUGOSLAVIA (Teresa Djelmis).
This event was attended by 56 of the 57 contestants who had arrived in the British capital, Miss SWITZERLAND (Sylvia Christina Weisser) missed the event for being sick. The 56 beauties paraded individually for photographers, who captured individual graphics of each girl for the first time. The press was able to know that some girls competed previously in Miss Universe. They were the representatives of Belgium, Canada, Ceylon, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand and Portugal, as well as Miss United Kingdom who participated in that event as Miss England. Miss Portugal had been the first runner-up of the Miss Europe 1970 contest where the representatives of Belgium and Luxembourg also took part. The youngest candidates were Miss Philippines, Miss Thailand, Miss Iceland, Miss Lebanon and Miss Seychelles at 17 years of age, while the oldest were Miss Jamaica, Miss India, Miss Tunisia and Miss United States who were 24.
Most of the girls who would compete in the Royal Albert Hall were in Britain for the first time. Miss Jamaica, Elizabeth Ann Lindo, was an Air Stewardess with British Overseas Airways (BOAC) from Kingston who claimed she was only in the Miss World Contest through shortage of money. The black-haired, brown-eyed 24-year-old explained she had entered the Miss Jamaica contest – her first attempt at what she said was really a “cattle-market business” – to get money to decorate her flat. Winning that title meant a trip to London for Miss World, but she modestly dismissed her chances of winning. “I would drop dead if I won.” Miss Lindo said if she did win, she would not follow the usual course of choosing a modeling career. “I’m too inhibited to be a model,” she said. Neither would she become a professional beauty queen. She is engaged to an Englishman, Mr. Warren Davis, who is based in Kingston – he is fed up with the whole idea of beauty contests, she said. Jennifer Josephine Hosten was also an Air Hostess, and the first Miss Grenada to enter the contest.Like almost every other contestant, she would like to travel around the world if she won the Miss World title, but she said she would also like to write a book of Children’s Stories.
On Saturday 14, the candidates finished their tour of London, visiting numerous places of tourist interest, went shopping and at night they attended the projection of the video of the 1969 contest so that they had an idea of how the event would take place. Miss USA, Sandra Anne Wolsfeld of Wheaton, Illinois, reported in the pageant booklet that she was a devotee of the miniskirt. She told an interviewer: “I couldn’t wait to get to London to buy maxi fashions, and I now have a wardrobe worth about $5,000, and I’m still spending.” That day, the Anti-Apartheid Movement had asked that the two young South Africans, one of color and the other white, withdraw from the contest, but were completely ignored by Mecca. Sunday the 15th was a rest day, some attended Mass and others remained in their rooms. At night they attended a dinner at a West End hotel with artist Engelbert Humperdinck.
CONTEST IS NOT A CATTLE MARKET.-
Organizers of the Miss World contest refused Sunday to be provoked by charges that the event is “just a cattle market.” But their feathers were ruffled when one of the contestants turned up at a reception wearing a see-through blouse and no brassiere. Peter Hain, best known as the man who led the campaign against that summer’s South African cricket tour of England, announced plans to disrupt the beauty contest Friday night at London’s Albert Hall. Hain, national vice-chairman of the young liberals, disclosed his group’s intentions of picketing the event, which he described as “just a cattle market, debasing and degrading women.” Contest organizer Eric Morley shrugged off the threat. “Since when,” he asked, “have the young liberals been a judge of the dignity of women?” Viewed with more alarm was Miss Austria’s choice of apparel at Sunday night’s reception at a West End hotel. She was about to meet the British singer Engelbert Humperdinck when Julia Morley realized that the candidate was wearing a transparent blouse and was not wearing a bra, so she had her breasts practically exposed. She immediately locked her in a bathroom until, with the help of a chaperone, she got a coat to cover her with.
LAST MINUTE’S WITHDRAWALS.-
That day (Sunday 15th) came the 58th candidate, Miss MALAYSIA (Mary Anne Wong Keat Choon), 23, and on the same flight was expected Miss SINGAPORE (Lovie Gaye) also 23. On a telegram they warned that the young woman lost the flight and would arrive then on Tuesday the 17th. On the other hand, Miss BERMUDA (Margaret Hill), 21, excused herself from participating at the last minute. She had competed in Miss Universe in Miami Beach where she had won the Miss Photogenic award. Later she went to Japan to Miss Young International and on her return, she won the “Miss Tourism International” title in Hollywood, California. The reasons why she did not arrive in London were not known. Other no shows were the representatives of Panama, Peru and Uganda, who had allegedly been handpicked but whose identities were never disclosed. The Singaporean contestant had been confirmed by Tuesday and her space and number were kept within the contest (she was the 48th participant) but she never arrived.
Britains lawmakers put on their best smiles Monday to entertain 58 beautiful girls from all over the world. The girls toured the House of Lords and the House of Commons and had lunch at the latter. Michael Clark-Hutchinson, Conservative member of Parliament who sponsored the visit escorted the girls. In the afternoon they posed for the official photos that would be shown during the broadcast of the contest on Friday.
The organizers of the contest said Monday left-wing militants have threatened to “sabotage” the Nov. 20 pageant for allowing a white contestant from South Africa to compete with a black one. The two South Africans told reporters that they were happy to compete together, regard themselves as joint representatives of South Africa, and would see each other together back home despite their country’s racial laws. Peter Hain, a spokesman for the Young Liberals, said his group would demonstrate against Miss Jessup’s inclusion in the contest “because she represents South Africa’s white minority.” “I disagree”. said Jillian, a 20-year-old blonde who has the same vital statistics of 36-25-36 as Pearl. “We both represent the whole of South Africa.” Miss Africa South said “If I am crowned it will be for all South Africans, not just the coloreds or the whites.” Jillian said that when they return home “we hope to go out together and meet in the same place.” The two girls competed in separate contests in South Africa, one for whites and one for blacks, for the right to go to London. A spokesman for the organizers said Young Liberals, militant youth wing of Britain’s Liberal Party, had threatened to sabotage the competition because the organizers did not restrict South Africa’s entry to a black contestant.
BETWEEN REHEARSALS AND BIRTHDAY PARTIES.-
Fifty-eight beautiful girls spent all day Tuesday rehearsing for the Friday night final in the Miss World contest. Only chaperones and contest officials could enter the Royal Albert Hall while beauty queens rehearsed. William Hill, a leading British bookmaker, turned Miss Sweden into the 7 to 1 favorite on Tuesday, and Miss Australia was the second choice with 10 to 1. Miss Dominion of Canada, Norma Joyce Hickey, 19, of Darnley, Prince Edward Island, was very down the Hill list, among those ranked 20 to 1 or more. On Wednesday 18th, the girls spent the whole day rehearsing at the Royal Albert Hall. That day the bets changed and gave Miss USA a winner with 8 to 1. The Ladbrokes agency considered Miss Australia as the top favorite with 8 to 1. Interest was also rising in Miss Holland, whose price had increased from 25- 1 to 16-1. Another big betting company, William Hill, led Miss Sweden as an 8-1 favorite, and had Miss Australia with 12-1 as a second favorite. They had also improved the chances of Miss Portugal and Miss Nicaragua that were reduced from 33-1 to 20-1. On Thursday 19 the contestants visited a beauty salon, had the general rehearsal and pre-recorded the opening number with the dancers of Lionel Blair and the parade of the nations in national costumes that would be shown during the broadcast of the finals. The representative of the United Kingdom was crowned Miss World in the Dress Rehearsal. She wore the golden crown for the first time ever!. This crown was used in the Miss World contest for two years.
There was also time that day to celebrate Miss Australia’s 20th birthday. Valli Kemp said “I am very superstitious and I believe in things like omens; my sister said it was a good sign that I turned 20 the day before the 20th edition of Miss World.” “Oh, no, she didn’t say I would win: she just said it was a good sign.” Big-eyed and rosy-lipped, Valli has already learnt that in the intrigue-ridden, glamour-laden corridors of the Miss World girls’ London hotel, diplomacy is the best tactic. Of course she would love to win, but she wouldn’t get too upset if she lost. She believed in never planning things. She took each day as it came. “That way, things seem to, happen,” she said. Miss Australia thought she was very ambitious and that’s why she didn’t have a stable boyfriend. “I would never tolerate it. I never have time for that kind of thing,” Valli said. In her statistics she said that she “loves riding elephants.” That was a strange hobby for an Australian. Not really for her, since she was born in East Africa and had lived in Australia for only six years.
MISS SWEDEN PROTESTED AND THEN SAID OTHERWISE.-
Miss Sweden, one of the favorites to win the Miss World contest, denounced the event on Thursday as a cattle market and said she would leave if she were not under contract with the organizers. “I don’t even want to win,” said blonde Maj Christal Johansson, a 20-year-old model from Stockholm. “I was warned that the contest was like a cattle market and I’m inclined to agree.” “I feel like a puppet.” “I am fed up with people shouting and screaming at me. “The rehearsal routines are exhausting. If I were not under contract to the organizers I would walk out at once.” Maj added that the strict chaperonage is “quite ridiculous.” “At the hotel where we are staying,” she said, “I cannot even go downstairs to buy a newspaper without a chaperone coming with me.” A spokesman for the dance-hall and bingo chain which runs the annual contest said: “In this contest there will always be chaperones for the girls and no one will ever be allowed to go out without one”. One leading British handbook made Miss Sweden a 7-1 favorite to win the crown. The next day, the girl, who seemed bipolar (or would have been forced?), said she disagreed with women’s liberationists who have called the pageant “a cattle market that degrades women”. She also said the contest has been “the experience of a lifetime”. “We all know what beauty pageants are,” she added. “None of us would compete If there was any question of being treated Lke cattle” Miss Johansson said the contest “is something I will never forget It has been the experience of a lifetime — a wonderful opportunity” The Swedish beauty’s statement was in marked contrast to what she said a day earlier when she pouted that she didn’t even want to win and would walk out of the affair is she was not under contract to the organizers.
MISS WORLD BOMB BLAST.-
A bomb exploded on Friday under a British Broadcasting Corp. truck containing television equipment to cover the final competition of the Miss World contest. Around 2:30 in the morning of Friday the 20th, a group of about four or five young people had gathered around one of the BBC’s transmission trucks that were parked next to the Royal Albert Hall. They slipped a homemade bomb under the truck and ran quickly down Kensington Gore towards Notting Hill. A small amount of TNT, wrapped in a copy of “The Times,” exploded a few minutes later waking up residents in a nearby block of flats, one of which saw young people flee. The young people seen leaving the scene were members of a group of anarchists who would later call themselves “The Angry Brigade.” Officials said the explosion, which caused minor damage to the truck, was an attempt to sabotage the contest. In addition, they ordered strict security for the final event of a group called Young Liberals that had been calling for demonstrations against the contest, but a spokesman for that organization said: “We believe in peaceful measures. This incident has nothing to do with us.” Women’s liberation supporters have denounced the contest as “a cattle market that degrades women”.
The final bets at Ladbrokes agency on Friday, November 20 were the following: With 8 to 1, Miss United Kingdom. 9 to 1, Miss Sweden and Miss USA. With 10 to 1, Miss Australia; with 16 to 1, Miss Guyana and Miss South Africa. With 20 to 1, Miss Brazil, Miss Italy, Miss Finland, Miss Mauritius, Miss Nicaragua, Miss Norway and Miss Turkey. With 25 to 1, Miss Africa South, Miss Austria, Miss Belgium, Miss Dominican Republic, Miss Grenada, Miss Iceland and Miss Switzerland. With 33 to 1, Miss Canada, Miss Colombia, Miss Denmark, Miss Ecuador, Miss France, Miss Germany, Miss Greece, Miss Holland, Miss Ireland, Miss Israel, Miss Jamaica, Miss New Zealand, Miss Portugal, Miss Spain and Miss Yugoslavia . With 40 to 1, Miss Hong Kong, Miss Malta and Miss Venezuela. With 50 to 1, Miss Argentina, Miss Cyprus, Miss Japan, Miss Luxembourg, Miss Malaysia and Miss Thailand. With 100 to 1, Miss Bahamas, Miss Gibraltar, Miss India, Miss Lebanon, Miss Liberia, Miss Ceylon, Miss Mexico, Miss Nigeria, Miss Philippines and Miss Puerto Rico. And with 200 to 1, Miss Gambia, Miss Korea, Miss Seychelles and Miss Tunisia.
Friday, November 20 was the day scheduled for the twentieth edition of the Miss World contest and the second event to be held at the Royal Albert Hall in London. The contest had the debut of Africa South, Grenada and Mauritius, while Spain, Hong Kong and Puerto Rico returned after several years of absence. The Albert Hall was fully sold. Not only 5,000 people paid incredible prices to see the finals live, but 27 million people (almost half of the adult population of the United Kingdom) would sit glued to the screens of their televisions to see it. This year, the contest would also be broadcast in the United States and in Australia via satellite.
Some demonstrators had gathered outside the Albert Hall before the ticket holders arrived. They did little to interrupt the process, they just showed it, with signs that said they were angry and called the contest a cattle market. At 8 o’clock at night the overture of the contest began with the Phil Tate orchestra and the British National Anthem. Next, the fanfare that officially began the contest. Eric Morley appeared on stage for the usual welcome words and to introduce the panel of judges. They were:
1- The High Commissioner of Malawi in the UK, Mr. Joseph Alseka.
2- British film producer Nat Cohen.
3- Eric Gairy, Prime Minister of Grenada.
4- Danish singer and actress, Baroness Van Pallandt, best known as “Nina”.
5- Peter Dimmock, General Manager of BBC Broadcasts and Chairman of the Judges.
6- The very famous British actress Joan Collins.
7- Fatehsinghrao Gaekwad, Maharaja of Baroda.
8- Glen Campbell, American singer and guitarist.
9- The Ambassador of Indonesia, Mr. Roesmin Noerjadin.
After this, the individual parade of each of the 58 contestants in swimsuits began. At the end of the parade, all took positions on the stage so that the judges could evaluate them together in groups of four and one last of six. Then there was a 15-minute intermission, enlivened by Phil Tate and his orchestra while the participants switched to their evening gowns. The 58 candidates then proceeded to parade individually and then in groups of fifteen in their ball gowns before the judges. While the votes were tabulated, the “Mike Sammes Singers” entertained the audience. At 9:20 p.m. the broadcast of the event began on the BBC, uninterruptedly, with the pre-recorded musical opening number and the introductions of all the contestants in their national costumes. Eric Morley was in charge of introducing them individually by their country in alphabetical order while Keith Fordyce commented on the parade of each one giving also the name of each participant. The contest was scheduled to broadcast over the next 65 minutes. However, events that occurred later forced to extend the transmission for another 15 minutes. After the video of the national costumes, the broadcast continued live when Michael Aspel, the Master of Ceremonies, took the stage to name the 15 semifinalists. The 15 paraded once again for the audience in their evening gowns and for the first time for viewers. While they paraded, Keith Fordyce offered biographical comments on each one. The 15 semifinalists were:
Miss AFRICA SOUTH (Pearl Gladys Jansen, a 20-year machine supervisor from Bonteheuwel, Cape Town); Miss AUSTRALIA (Valli Kemp, a 20-year-old actress and model from Darling Point); Miss BRAZIL (Sonia Yara Guerra, a 22-year-old bank employee, from Campinas, Sao Paulo); Miss CEYLON (Yolanda Shahzadi Ahlip, a 22-year-old model from Colombo); Miss ECUADOR (Sofia Virginia Monteverde Nimbriotis, a 20-year-old student from Guayaquil); Miss GRENADA (Jennifer Josephine Hosten, a 23-year-old stewardess of St. George’s); Miss GUYANA (Jennifer Diana Evan Wong, an 18-year-old student from Watooka, Mackenzie); Miss INDIA (Heather Corinne Faville, a 24-year-old secretary from Bangalore); Miss ISRAEL (Irith Lavi, a physical education student and 18-year-old model from Haifa); Miss PHILIPPINES (Minerva Manalo Cagatao, a 17-year-old student from Isabela); Miss SOUTH AFRICA (Jillian Elizabeth Jessup, a 20-year-old student from Port Elizabeth); Miss SWEDEN (Marjorie Christal Johansson, a 20-year-old model from Stockholm); Miss UNITED KINGDOM (Yvonne Anne Ormes, a 21-year-old model and hairdresser, from Nantwich, Cheshire); Miss UNITED STATES (Sandra Anne Wolsfeld, a 24-year-old model, from Wheaton, Illinois) and Miss YUGOSLAVIA (Teresa Djelmis, a 19-year-old student from Subotica, Serbia).
After the gowns parade, Michael Aspel invited American comedian Bob Hope to the stage, who for a few minutes made cheap jokes, such as: “I am very happy to be in this cattle market tonight.” Hope had little more than 5 minutes reading his bad jokes from a cardboard that was holding a pointer when suddenly from the audience, demonstrators began throwing eggs and flour missiles, in addition to pestilent smoke bombs and a rain of pamphlets against the contest. Hope fled the stage when a flour bomb was thrown at him and Eric Morley took his place on the stage addressing the public while security tried to tidy up and detain the protesters. After controlling the situation, which lasted about a minute and a half, Bob Hope returned to the stage at Morley’s request and said that it had served as a training for his trip to Vietnam. Next, Bob Hope called Eva Rueber-Staier, Miss World 1969, on stage, whom she interviewed for a couple of minutes and directed a couple of unintelligible jokes for her. After that, Hope continued with his jokes for about 4 more minutes before leaving the stage. This time, Keith Fordyce took the microphone to introduce the 15 semifinalists in their swimsuits, who paraded individually while off, Aspel, somewhat out of focus, commented on some physical data of each finalist. After the individual parade, the 15 semifinalists posed in a group and turned as usual in front of the judges, who now had to proceed to choose the last 7 finalists. Fordyce then called Michael Aspel on stage who proceeded to announce the 7 finalists and as he was calling them, he was interviewing them briefly.
THE WINNER AND HER COURT.-
The 7 finalists were Miss AFRICA SOUTH, Miss BRAZIL, Miss GRENADA, Miss ISRAEL, Miss SOUTH AFRICA, Miss SWEDEN and Miss UNITED KINGDOM. While the verdict of the judges was tabulated, Eva Rueber-Staier, with a green silk cape, gave her final walk to the beat of modern music, while Fordyce commented that she had traveled to the US, all of Europe, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Vietnam, Formosa, Australia, Kenya and Uganda. Lionel Blair dancers joined her, who danced alongside her to say goodbye to her reign. Michael Aspel then proceeded to call Mecca Director Alan B. Fairley on stage for the awards and Eric Morley to announce the results in reverse order. Behind the stage the 7 finalists were waiting, very nervous, to know the judge’s decision. The four finalists would be crowned in the same backstage by a contest official and, once on stage, Fairley would hand them their silver trophy. The final results were the following:
In fifth place was MISS SOUTH AFRICA (Jillian Elizabeth Jessup), who won a prize of £ 100; in the fourth position, the big favorite of the contest, Miss SWEDEN (Maj Christal Johansson) with a check for 150 pounds sterling; in third place and winner of a check for £ 250, Miss ISRAEL (Irith Lavi). In the second place and runner-up of Miss World, Miss AFRICA SOUTH (Pearl Gladys Jansen) with 500 pounds sterling prize. Behind were three young ladies, Miss BRAZIL, Miss GRENADA and Miss UNITED KINGDOM.
Then Eric Morley announced that the new MISS WORLD 1970 was … Miss GRENADA !!! In shock, Jennifer Josephine Hosten, a 5 feet 7 and a half inches tall brunette, black hair, brown eyes and measurements 36-24-38, the first representative of the spicy island in the history of the contest, received her sash behind the stage (by the way a new design with white background and yellow letters and that fell from the right shoulder and not from the left as in previous years) and went on stage to sit on the royal throne while two pages placed the robe (also with new design, in gold and with a Cleopatra style cut) and Fairley handed her the silver trophy. Bob Hope was in charge of the coronation ceremony with the new golden tiara valued at £ 500, which was described in an earlier chapter. A page replaced the trophy with the scepter so that the young 23-year-old stewardess and the first Miss World of color, gave her triumphal walk with the chords of the classic Miss World march, masterfully performed by Phil Tate and his orchestra. The brand new Miss World received a check for 2500 pounds sterling, a film test and the possibility of winning thousands of pounds more in advertising and personal appearances during her year of reign.
At the end of the broadcast at 10:40 at night, the winner and her runner-ups posed for the photographs of rigor and then went to the Café de Paris, which returned to be the site of the Coronation Ball, where they officially received their awards. Likewise, Miss Brazil and Miss United Kingdom received their checks for 50 and 25 pounds respectively when they obtained sixth and seventh place in the competition. By the way, Miss Switzerland and Miss Jamaica refused to attend the Coronation Ball. Miss Switzerland said: “I have nothing against the girls of color, but I don’t know how Miss Grenada could win.” Miss Hosten said she didn’t expect big changes in her life with her new title, except “it can help build my character. I’m not planning to marry anyone.” “Not yet,” she clarified.
DESCRIBING THE EVENT.-
After a contest interrupted by smoke bombs and female liberation slogans, Miss Grenada danced until dawn on Saturday, November 21 to celebrate her enthronement as Miss World. Jennifer Josephine Hosten, 23, of the West Indies, said she didn’t understand why the protesters tried to ruin the contest on Friday night. “I really don’t know enough about what they were demonstrating,” said Miss Hosten. “All I know is that it has been a wonderful experience to compete for the title of Miss World.” Hosten, in addition to being a flight attendant for the British West Indies Airways, was a radio host trained at the BBC in London in 1965.
Comedian Bob Hope was at the microphone telling jokes before crowning the new Miss World. “Poor cows!” a woman’s voice shouted. Suddenly, women across the hall jumped from their seats, blowing whistles and rattles. They went down eight rows to the stage, bombarding it with stink bombs, pamphlets and rotten fruit. An ink bomb exploded at Hope’s feet and he hurried away from the Albert Hall stage when the missiles began to fly. About 50 women and a few men threw smoke bombs, stink bombs, ink bombs and pamphlets in a brief demonstration during the contest and shouted: “We are liberationists! We must ban this shameful cattle market! One demonstrator threw a heavy noisemaker used at soccer matches at the judges, who included the prime minister of Grenada, Sir Eric Gairy. The rattle just missed another judge, a Danish singer known as Nina, and bounced to within a foot of another, American singer Glen Campbell. An ink bomb splashed a nearby official and the stage was briefly flooded by the stench of smoke bombs. The judges and contestants escaped the injuries. The security police entered, gathered more than 50 protesters and led them quickly to the exits. Returning after burly security guards cleared the demonstrators, Bob Hope joked, returning to the microphone: “This is a good conditioning course for Vietnam.” Then he stopped smiling and the audience applauded him. Then he said: “Anyone who would try to break up an affair as wonderful as this has got to be on some kind of dope.” The 5,000 persons in the hall booed disapproval of the ruckus. Shortly before the contest began, a bomb exploded under a British Broadcasting Corp. (BBC) television truck outside the room in a failed attempt to avoid the screening of the contest. No one was hurt. The militant feminists threatened the week before to interrupt the contest because, they said, “it reduces women to the condition of simple sexual symbols” and “their dignity to that of a cattle market.”
Apparently unshaken by stink bombs, police security and slogans for women’s liberation, a 22-year-old black airline stewardess from the West Indies said she was “terribly, terribly proud” to be Miss World for 1970. “But I must admit I’m a little bewildered”. Jennifer Hosten stayed above the disputes and said with a bright smile that she was “very surprised to win.” Miss Sweden caused a stir before the final when she told reporters she felt “like a puppet.” “I don’t even want to win. If I wasn’t under contract with the organizers, I would retire immediately.” After a talk with the organizers of the contest, she retracted her comments. Part of the Albert Hall audience chanted in her favor after hearing the judges’ decision, singing, “Swe-den. Swe-den.”
PROTEST THE JUDGES’ VERDICT.-
Jennifer Hosten, who as Miss Grenada won the Miss World title, shrugged off complaints Saturday that she won the beauty contest because the prime minister of Grenada was one of the nine judges. Miss Hosten, a 22-year-old black airline stewardess from the West Indies, beat another black girl, 20-year-old Pearl Jansen from South Africa and 56 other contestants from 55 countries for the Miss World title. She said she was not concerned about complaints from television viewers about her win. “There were 58 of us girls and everyone is entitled to have his favorite,” said Miss Hosten, clad in a brown and white trouser suit. London newspapers headlined reports that television viewers complained about the selection of Miss Grenada as the contest winner. London bookmakers had quoted 25-1 odds on Miss Hosten’s selection as the beauty queen. The Sun newspaper said complaints on the fact that Eric M. Gairy, prime minister of Grenada, was one of the nine contest judges, who also included singer Glen Campbell, actress Joan Collins and the high commissioner of Malawi. A spokesman for Mecca, the organizers of the 20th annual Miss World contest, said the prime minister did not make a special trip to London for the contest, but happened to be there visiting.
The West Indian beauty reigned serenely as Miss World while controversy touching on racism rigging and rioting raped around her Involved too was comedian Bob Hope and women more interested in “equality” than beauty Jennifer Hosten 22-year-old representative of the tiny spice island of Grenada kept above the feuding and said with a gleaming smile she was “very surprised to win” The promoter of the contest Eric Morley tried to quiet the furor by admitting Miss Grenada wasn’t his choice — “and I’m supposed to be an expert” — it was Miss Guyana “And”, he said” “she wasn’t even among the quarter finalists”. The post-contest inquest Sunday brought out that Miss Grenada whose prime minister was on the jury ran second in the voting Four of the nine judges went for Miss Sweden. But Miss Grenada, who got two votes for winner, took the prize because of the contest’s “absolute majority” system. This meant that if a girl had no absolute majority to win (five out of nine judges) then they counted the second places, in which Miss Granada had obtained five of them. And therefore she had more possibilities than the Swedish blonde. The British Broadcasting Corp which televised the competition was bombarded by protests.
The next morning and with few hours of sleep, the brand new Miss World received the press and photographers at the Hotel Britannia and posed on the outskirts of the hotel with her new crown. Later she went shopping around Grosvenor Square. On Monday, November 23, Jennifer Hosten turned her back on the sad beginning of her reign as Miss World, and flew home to the small nutmeg island of Grenada in the West Indies. The winners of the Miss World contest generally stayed in London, where they could expect more lucrative tasks during the first month after the competition. They were asked to make official visits, open stores and sponsor charities, and receive offers of screen tests and modeling contracts. But Jennifer turned her back on the commercial glitter and went home. After the contest on Friday 20, thousands of viewers protested the result. But the organizers of the contest, Mecca Promotions Ltd, denied that the situation has hurt Jennifer. They claim that they have had an avalanche of offers for her, especially from America. In the same plane as Jennifer, was the Prime Minister of Granada, Eric Gairy, who was one of the judges of the contest. But while Jennifer would receive a great welcome from the people of Grenada, the island government declared a public holiday and people had been walking from all over the island to welcome her, this will not be such a happy return for Mr Gairy. He faces a political storm of opposition parliamentarians who want to know why he agreed to help judge the contest. He will also be asked about the rumors that Mecca approached him to ask permission to open a betting casino on the island.
JULIA MORLEY QUITS.-
Ms. Julia Morley resigned as organizer of the Miss World contest on Monday 23rd at night after accusations that last Friday’s beauty contest was “fixed.” “This is the only course of action I can take,” said Ms. Morley. She said she was “sick” because of the allegations that the contest that had been won by Miss Grenada, Miss Jennifer Hosten, won it because the Prime Minister of Grenada, Eric Gairy, had been one of the judges. “It is absolutely wicked to suggest that Mr. Gairy would be a party to rigging the contest. Even without his vote, Miss Grenada would have won,” said Mrs. Morley, 31. “If so many people think that my choice of judges was wrong, then I can’t be right for the job.” “As I was responsible for inviting the Prime Minister to become a judge in the contest I have decided to resign as a matter of principle”, she added. Meanwhile, both Miss Hosten and Mr Gairy have laughed off suggestions that the contest was fixed. They left London that same day for the Caribbean island of Grenada.
Eric Morley said: “I have been trying to convince my wife not to quit for several hours. The dispute was about the election of the Prime Minister of Grenada, Eric Gairy, as judge. He cast one of the two votes that Miss Grenada received.” “I think she did the job better than anyone in the twenty-year history of the contest.” Mrs. Morley said at her home in Dulwich: “I feel very sorry for Premier Gairy, who I consider has been treated very badly. I do not blame him at all for what happened. But I already made my decision, and that is final”. Earlier in the evening. Mrs. Morley had denied that she intended to resign. She said: “If I run next year’s contest, I will do it in exactly the same way. I will pick the same sort of judges”.
IT WAS NOT FIXED.-
On Tuesday, November 24, Eric Morley, Director of Mecca Promotions, organizer of the Miss World contest, offered details at a press conference where he clarified that the contest had not been arranged. Issued details and an explanation of how to vote in the contest. Mr. Morley said, showing the voting ballots with the results, that he had “little enthusiasm” for giving an explanation. He said he felt that way because he had been told that, no matter what he said, most of Fleet Street felt that the Miss World contest had been “bent.” Mr. Morley continued to emphasize that Mecca could not win anything with the victory of Miss Grenada. And he added: “Will the press accept, please, a very sincere statement that in the 20 years of the Miss World contest it has never been manipulated or altered in any way? And while here, it never will be.” Mr. Morley said the storm “seems to have reached the Prime Minister of Grenada,” who was one of the judges of the contest. But he stressed that there were nine judges and asked if they had all been “bent.” “It is an insult to them to think that they could be, and the very idea of the majority voting system is to ignore the extremes. Even if the vote of the Prime Minister of Grenada was reversed, by altering his vote for Miss Grenada from first to seventh, she would still have won both for our majority voting system and for points. ” “And in normal circumstances I find the press fair and reasonable. But this ‘trial by insinuation’ is affecting my business and my family.” “I can assure you that, no matter how much they dig, they will never find anything wrong in Miss World, except, as always, in a difference of opinion about the winner. That is something I have no control over.”
Finally, Mr. Morley said: “May I suggest that if more accusations are made about the contest, that the consultations be directed to the Chairman of the judges, Mr. Peter Dimmock of the BBC, since neither I nor any person employed by Mecca was on the panel of judges”. In the details of the evaluation, Mr. Morley showed that three of the girls obtained a unanimous vote in the first round. They were Miss Africa South and Miss Grenada, both non-white, and Miss Israel. Miss Sweden, “barely arrived” in the second round with four votes of nine. Morley said the final selection of 15 to seven finalists showed that all the judges voted for Africa South and eight for Granada, Sweden received four and reached the last seven by the quality vote of the president of the judges, as did Miss United Kingdom who had tied with Miss United States”. No other girl was close to Miss Africa South and Miss Grenada and it became a matter of who appeared best in the final personality interview. Morley said Miss Grenada gave the best interview. He explained that the candidates were evaluated under the majority voting system. Then he showed the final score. Four judges voted for Miss Sweden, two for Miss Grenada, two for Miss Africa South and one for Miss Israel. But he noted that Miss Grenada obtained five second places and a third, the majority, while Miss Sweden only had a fourth, a fifth and three sevenths. In terms of points, Miss Grenada scored 50, Miss Africa South 43 and Miss Sweden 38 (see table). He said he was omitting the names of the judges, but that he would be prepared to show them in few weeks. Regarding Miss Grenada, Mr. Morley said: “In general, it was accepted that she gave the best interview, and this tipped the scales in her favor.”
TRYING TO BAN THE CONTEST.-
A British lawmaker said on Tuesday, November 24 that the annual Miss World beauty pageant should be banned in London because “it simply attracts some beautiful girls to London from which we already have a good supply.” He said he will ask the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, if in the interest of the friendship of the Commonwealth he will ban the contest. “Let’s stop this commercial controversy during the year before it becomes a winning outbreak of hostilities,” Labor Marcus Lipton said. But his request was denied by parliament.
SOME INTERESTING DATA.-
* Eric Morley, president of Mecca Promotions Ltd, which organizes the contest, said he and Gairy, Prime Minister of Grenada, had been accused of manipulating the result. “I had never met Mr. Gairy before the contest,” said Morley. “Even if all his scores had been eliminated from the vote, Miss Grenada would still have won.” Grenadian Prime Minister Eric Gairy commented: “The last time Miss United Kingdom was voted Miss World, there were five British judges on the panel, so why so much fuss now?”
* The Miss World contest screened on BBC-1 on Friday, November 20 was seen in 10,550,000 British homes, the largest television audience of the year, according to published figures.
* When they started launching the “missiles” from the boxes, Bob Hope terrified tried to flee, but Julia Morley stopped him and insisted that the show must go on. Eric Morley said, ““I invited him back on stage and introduced him as a very brave man. But Julia said to me afterwards, ‘Brave man, my foot! I’ve been holding on to the so-and-so to keep him there!’”.
* “I didn’t know about the controversy until the final night,” Hosten recalled in a telephone interview. “I didn’t even know that Grenada’s prime minister was going to be a judge. I had no idea!”
* A special team of journalists was sent to Grenada, where they discovered that Miss Grenada’s triumph had nothing to do with the fact that Eric Morley wanted a license to open a casino in Grenada. No. It had nothing to do with it since everyone there denied it.
* Miss Australia was born in Kenya to British parents and lived for a time in Britain. At the age of 12, her family moved to Sydney, Australia but her older brother stayed in England. Upon her arrival in London for the contest, the Australian beauty announced to the press that she hoped to contact her brother George, 27, whom she had not seen in seven years. After the newspapers published the story, her brother searched for her and the two finally got together again. George Kemp joked: “I work as a charger for BOAC, but I didn’t recognize Valli when she got off the plane. She has changed for the better!”.
* A day before the contest, Miss Africa South went to the Harrods stores with her chaperone Maureen Edwards to buy a last-minute evening dress, because the dress they gave her in her country, a rather disheveled pink one, did not make her feel comfortable. She bought a white gown with flared sleeves that she wore in the finals.
* Miss South Africa, Jillian Jessup was the only married contestant and the last in the history of Miss World, as Julia Morley decided that from that year on she would not accept any more married ladies.
* More than two decades later, Miss Sweden, Marjorie Christal Johansson, continued to claim that she had been cheated and stripped of the title.
JULIA CHANGES HER MIND.-
The row following the election of Miss Grenada as Miss World has forced a fundamental change in the rules for future competitions. And Mrs. Julia Morley has changed her mind about resigning as organiser of the contest. After the rumpus over Miss Grenada’s victory she declared she would quit. But now she says that Press reports vindicating her and Mecca of rigging the contest have encouraged her to think again about walking out. To save future bother, however, the Press are to be given a sight of the voting cards immediately after the judging. Up till now the judges’ verdict is all that has been disclosed. The judges mark, of course, on a wider range of qualities than those immediately evident to TV audiences.
BIOGRAPHY OF MISS WORLD 1970.-
Jennifer Josephine Hosten was born on October 31, 1947 in St. George’s the capital of Grenada (she shared the same birthday as her predecessor Eva Rueber-Staier). Her mother was Canadian and her father from Grenada. She was educated at the Anglican Lyceum of Granada. She studied in London and was trained at the BBC as a radio presenter at the age of 18 (1965). She worked on the radio in her native Grenada and later became a flight attendant for the British West Indies Airways (BWIA). In the mid-1970s, during a flight, she met the newly elected Miss Guyana who encouraged her to enroll the Miss Grenada contest, which she finally did and won. On November 20 of that same year she was crowned “Miss World 1970” at the Royal Albert Hall. She flew back home on Monday November 23 via New York, and arrived on her Caribbean island on Tuesday 24, being received with all the honors. The government declared a holiday and stamps were issued in her honor. She returned to London on December 11 and the following day began the USO Tour with Bob Hope from Great Britain. The world tour of American bases began on December 12 in R.A.F. Lakenheath in Norfolk, and troops from many nearby bases attended. The tour covered England, West Germany, the 6th. floats in the Mediterranean, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea and Alaska and returned to Hollywood on December 29. Among those who accompanied Bob Hope and Jennifer was actress Ursula Andress. After returning to London, she made numerous other personal appearances around the world with quiet dignity despite the controversy surrounding her victory.
Jennifer successfully completed her reign year and crowned her successor the following year. Hosten then worked with Air Canada on customer relations and married Canadian engineer David Craig, 27, an IBM manager in Bermuda, on January 29, 1972 at St. George’s Anglican Church, Grenada. They lived in Bermuda until the winter of 1973, when they moved to the rural community of Osgoode, Ontario, Canada. Hosten earned a Master of Arts in Political Science and International Relations from the University of Carleton, Ottawa writing her thesis on how the North American Free Trade Agreement impacted the Caribbean countries, and to this day she remains an advocate strong and vocal regional integration. She had two children, Sophia and Beau Craig. In 1978, the Prime Minister suggested her for a position at the United Nations in New York, but Hosten declined the offer. But she did accept being a High Commissioner of Grenada for Canada, a job she did from 1978 to 1981. “The first time they asked me,” she recalled, “the idea was an exciting one, but I did have some reservations.” “But I had already seen myself as an ambassadress to Grenada,” she added, “through my international travels, and had many opportunities to talk and was quite used to just winging it.” Then she took a six-week diplomacy course before becoming a spokesperson for Grenada in Canada. She attended as a judge at Miss World 1978, in 1980 she organized the contest “Miss World Canada” and was as a special guest on the anniversary of Miss World celebrated in London in 2000. Her niece represented Trinidad-Tobago in Miss World 1981 where she was a semifinalist. In addition to her High Commissioner, Hosten’s career has also including positions as of 1992 in the Department of Canadian Heritage, the International Development Research Center of Canada (IDRC) and the Canadian International Development Agency (ACD I), in addition to other Canadian and Caribbean organizations. Positions included Program Manager, Director of Strategic Affairs (WETV) and Policy Analyst. In 1998 she was seconded as Technical Advisor of Commerce for the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) while living on the island of Saint Lucia. Hosten married for the second time, this time with Shaun Sarsfield, a businessman from Grenada from whom she divorced in 2009. Between 2002 and 2004 she worked as a Canadian diplomat (Aid Division) in the High Commission of Canada in Dhaka, Bangladesh, before returning to the Caribbean. In 2004 she survived a powerful hurricane that devastated Grenada. She opened Jenny’s Place, studio apartments facing the beach at Grand Anse Beach in Granada, in August 2005. At the end of 2006 she obtained the franchise of Grenada for Miss World, a contest she held on March 31, 2007, but only sent a representative to Miss World that year. She published her autobiography “Beyond Miss World” on October 8, 2008, which she had written jointly with her second husband, Shaun Sarsfield.
In 2009, Hosten requested a restraining order against her ex-husband, Shaun Sarsfield. The newspaper Grenada Today published the information of the restraining order, citing the newspaper The Grenadian Voice that published on August 1, 2009 a notice addressed to Sarsfield warning him to stay away from Hosten. It said: “The law firm of Wilkinson, Wilkinson & Wilkinson is acting on behalf of Hosten and is seeking the arrest of Sarsfield if he violates certain aspects of the court order.” The notice described three Hosten claims. The first claim was that “the Respondent (Sarsfield) must be restricted by himself, his servants or agents or, in any other way, from assaulting or disturbing or otherwise interfering with the applicant.” The second claim restricted him from loitering or approaching 100 feet from Hosten. Sarsfield was also prevented from approaching 100 feet from the Hosten property called Jenny’s Place, located in Grand Anse in the parish of Saint George’s. No reason was indicated for the separation of the couple. However, it was said that Hosten’s ex-husband was accused by internationally renowned musician David Emmanuel, the previous year of allegedly shooting him and being very “racial.”
In 2011, Hosten graduated from the University of Yorkville, New Brunswick, Canada, with a master’s degree in Counseling (Psychology). She married for the third time, this time with Jim O’Hare. She currently works as a registered psychotherapist in Oakville, Ontario. She has five young grandchildren. To this day she is considered a staunch defender of beauty pageants that ultimately empower women. On March 13, 2020 a movie called “Misbehavior” will be released, recounting everything that happened in the contest 50 years before. Hosten was invited to the preview in London on November 22, 2019. Jennifer Hosten’s role in the film was characterized by actress Gugu Mbatha-Raw.
INFO ON OTHER CONTESTANTS.-
* Pearl Gladys Jansen, Miss Africa South: After the contest, she returned to her country, but not for long. Everyone thought she was rich with £ 500 in prize money and her father was fired from his job thinking that he no longer needed it and that her daughter would support him. In January 1971 she returned to London seeking fame and fortune. She wanted to devote herself to modeling and acting but did not achieve much. At age 40 she was diagnosed with breast cancer and had to undergo a mastectomy and had to cut her hairy hair when she started chemotherapy. She never married and still lives with her mother, almost 100 years old in Bonteheuwel, Cape Town. She attended the VIP preview of the movie “Misbehavior” that took place in London on November 22, 2019 and where she met up with Jennifer Hosten after 50 years!
* Valli Kemp, Miss Australia: After the contest she stayed living in London with her brother. She continued her modeling and painting career, also receiving many proposals to make films, which she accepted. She married Robert Winsor in August 1973 and by that time she was conducting her own TV show in London. She divorced in 1975. She returned to live in Australia in 1982 where she devoted herself to fashion design. She remarried in 1985 and had three children. She continues to work as an artist and art teacher in Newcastle, north of Sydney.
* Georgina Rizk, Miss Lebanon: She won the crown of Miss Universe in July 1971 in Miami Beach. She could not relinquish her crown the following year in Puerto Rico because her presence was avoided by her government, fearful of an attack against her. This fear was caused by the attack by a group of Japanese terrorists trained by the “Black September” organization that carried out an attack at Tel Aviv International Airport, Israel, in which 22 Puerto Rican tourists died. Rizk had a career in film, making three local films. She was widowed Ali Hassan Salameh, murdered in 1979, when she was six months pregnant; she remarried and established a new family with the Lebanese musician Walid Toufic, and currently the couple lives between Cairo and Beirut.
* Libia López, Miss Mexico: Born in Guasave, Sinaloa, on February 23, 1952, she was crowned Queen of the International Carnival of Mazatlan before winning the crown of Miss Sinaloa and then the one of Miss Mexico on May 15, 1970 at the Hotel Camino Real of Mexico City. After being a beauty queen, she married Hernán Farriols, with whom she had three daughters, Daniela, Libia and Pamela Farriols López. Libia Zulema became a woman who focused her attention on her home, and on some Red Cross campaigns and for homeless children. She entered politics as a candidate for the municipal presidency of Mazatlan. In 1996, she became an opposition leader in Mazatlan, being a social and critical fighter of the economic system and of the men of power in Sinaloa and Mexico. In 2006 she received a kidney transplant and was suffering from kidney failure for over the years. She died on Monday, May 6, 2019 because of her illness.
* Tomasa De Las Casas, Miss Venezuela: She still lives in Caracas with her lifelong partner but never married or had children.
THE FATE OF THE DEMONSTRATORS.-
Five women were sentenced for riots at the Royal Albert Hall and for firing missiles against the audience, the judges, the presenters and the candidates. The final hearing was scheduled for December 3, 1970. “Miss World epitomized everything I thought was wrong,” said one of the protesters, Jenny Fortune. “It was considered as if we were stopping the patriarchy.” “We all believed in the revolution back then,” said Jo Robinson, another activist who threw old flour and vegetables to Bob Hope, that night. “We all believed that the world could change, and we all believed that we could do it.” Sally Alexander was one of the five women arrested and put in jail at night; the others included Robinson and Fortune. “I was the only one accused of assault, so I needed a lawyer,” Alexander said. The others, who were tried for minor crimes, “conducted their own defense, and that was a deliberate and conscious identification with the suffragists, who did the same.”.
The base for the Miss World protest had been established at the first National Women’s Liberation Conference, which took place at Ruskin College, Oxford, in February 1970. Originally conceived by Alexander and her fellow historian Sheila Rowbotham as an event to remember the experiences of women around the world. Over time, it attracted many more participants than the organizers expected, and the approach changed from the past to the present, ending with demands for the right to equal pay, equal employment opportunities, free contraception and free childcare 24 hours. “There had not been an event like this before, where women brought and presented brilliant ideas on that scale,” Fortune said. “Listening to the domestic work policy discussed was seismic,” said Jane Grant, another Ruskin participant who spoke out against Miss World. Robinson, meanwhile, “had never found a philosophy before she said:” It is not you who is wrong, it is the system. “
No one remembers exactly who came up with the idea of trying to enter the Royal Albert Hall to interrupt the contest, but Sarah Wilson, another of the women there that night, remembers that there were only five people at the initial meeting to discuss the plan. “There were demonstrations outside the Miss World contest in previous years, but no one had ever tried to enter the auditorium before.” The women bought tickets and arrived alone or in pairs to avoid raising suspicions. “I thought I could be alone,” Robinson said. “I didn’t know if anyone else had managed to get in. We knew we needed to mix, so we dressed well. I certainly didn’t wear the kind of clothes I used to wear. I was wearing a pink dress and a coat with a flexible hat, I had imagined that would be adequate”. Another protester, Sue Finch, had never been to Albert Hall before. “I had 10 days left to give birth to my first child, and it was a big climb to my seat on the balcony.” The plan, Wilson said, was to wait until the Miss World contestants were on stage before giving a signal for the flour bombs and vegetables they had hidden in their bags to rain. She said there was no intention to criticize the contestants, only the organizers, but they thought that choosing the moment they were all on stage to launch their missiles would have the greatest impact.
At night, however, Bob Hope’s insipid and misogynistic gags changed her plans. “It was so disgusting,” said Wilson. Hope referred to the event as a cattle market. Wilson jumped to her feet. “I told the woman next to me: “This cannot continue”. “I began to swing my football rattle over my head.” Finch recalls: “When I heard Sarah’s noise, I started throwing flour bombs and pamphlets on the balcony. And suddenly, around me there were other women doing the same thing. It was as if it was snowing … it was a wonderful moment” . Fortune remembers it the same way. “It felt like we were taking control. It was a change of life: I knew that I was headed for a very different future”. But how different would that future be?. It is hard to imagine that the 1970 activists, prepared for dramatic changes in women’s rights, would be satisfied half a century later. “We didn’t realize what we were facing,” Fortune said. “We felt very powerful and thought things were going to change more than they did.” Looking back at the original Ruskin conference, Finch says there have been few significant changes. “In child care we have done well. But violence against women has not changed and, somehow, that was what our protest was about. If you treat women as objects, it is easier to rape and kill them”.
THE ANGRY BRIGADE.-
The great trial was of the other eight connected to the “Angry Brigade”. Four seemed to be important suspects, four others, not so much. The main protagonists included two young women, Hilary Creek and Anna Mendelssohn. Someone had the brilliant idea of taking photos of the women. Everyone understood that the press would take advantage of the sexual aspects of the case and the photos of the women would be much more valuable than those of the accused. The license fees went directly to the defense fund of the “Stoke Newington Eight”. You can solve for yourself the interesting sexual policy of financing the defense of militant feminists by providing their photos to an exploitative press. And the press was incredibly exploitative, even for Britain, which has some really dirty newspapers. “Sex orgies in the house of blood” was a headline of the Sun newspaper. Because, as you can see, if this was a mixed event, with both men and women, then there should have been orgies …
The judge instructed the jury that any assent or the slightest nod to the actual bombers was enough to condemn someone for conspiracy. In the end, the jury did not condemn anyone for planting a bomb, but they did condemn four of the eight for conspiracy to blow it up. Both women were convicted, but the jury agreed that Stuart Christie was not guilty. The jury also asked the judge to show mercy and the judge responded with ten-year sentences for the four convicted criminals. Hilary Creek, Anna Mendelssohn, John Barker and James Greenfield.
The trial finished on December 6, 1972 and was the longest in British history so far (and maybe now, I don’t know), so the “Angry Brigade” received a lot of press and the public reaction was mainly supportive. “We are all angry now” was a response to the sentence. The convicts served approximately seven years in prison, although the women were released earlier for medical reasons such as anorexia. Cavalry is the maiden of sexism, so to speak. Today, none of the convicted seems to apologize, in fact, they seem to be more angry than ever …
Thanks to Donald West, Daryl Schabinger, Anthony Pisano, Sally-Ann Fawcett, Humberto Acevedo, Mario Jérez, Norberto Colón Tapia, Orlando Ospina, Mills Aldorino, Toni Hidalgo and Glamour Argentino.